Cultural Heritage and Forest Fires

picture taken from Kosmas Dimitropoulos , Kovanc Köse, Nikos Grammalidis, and Enis Cetin paper
picture taken from Kosmas Dimitropoulos , Kovanc Köse, Nikos Grammalidis, and Enis Cetin paper

Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from noncontact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, devoted to the development of international cooperation for the advancement of photogrammetry and remote sensing and their applications. The society has published on its website among other conference proceedings the paper concerning “fire detection, and 3D fire propagation estimation for the protection of cultural heritage areas”.

The abstract of the paper states that  beyond taking precautionary measures to avoid a forest fire, early warning and immediate response to a fire breakout are the only ways to avoid great losses and environmental and cultural heritage damages. To this end, this paper aims to present a computer vision based algorithm for wildfire detection and a 3D fire propagation estimation system. The main detection algorithm is composed of four sub-algorithms detecting:

  • (i) slow moving objects,
  • (ii) smoke-coloured regions,
  • (iii) rising regions,
  • (iv) shadow regions.

After detecting a wildfire, the main focus should be the estimation of its propagation direction and speed. If the model of the vegetation and other important parameters like wind speed, slope, aspect of the ground surface, etc. are known; the propagation of fire can be estimated. This propagation can then be visualized in any 3D-GIS environment that supports KML files.

Fireworks and Cultural buildings safety

text and picture from wikipedia
text and picture from wikipedia

On 9 February 2009 the Beijing Television Cultural Center has been damaged by a massive blaze. The building, in the centre of Beijing, was adjacent to the CCTV Headquarters. At 8:27 p.m. the entire building caught fire on the last day of the festivities marking the Chinese new year and was put out six hours later. A nearby unauthorised fireworks display caused the fire.

The cause of the fire has been linked to a massive Chinese New Year fireworks display in the compound, authorized by CCTV itself, without the permission or participation from Beijing police, the Beijing Fire Department, Beijing City government, or any other governmental department.

CCTV had ignored three consecutive police interventions and warnings and had four television cameras trained on the multi-million yuan fireworks, which consisted of nearly 700 high explosive pyrotechnic devices.

Six hundred firefighters arrived on the scene to fight the blaze, which lasted five hours and caused one death and seven injuries.

The fire began on the building’s roof and spread to the lower floors, fed by high winds. Toxic fumes and a lack of working sprinklers were said to have hampered efforts to extinguish the fire.

The complex’s main building, the doughnut-shaped structure, was not damaged. The building, which was originally scheduled to open in 2009, did not seen any progress towards opening or being visibly repaired by the end of that year.

Egyptian Museum and the Threat of Riots Fires in Cairo (Egypt)

1The potential collapse of a neighboring building caused by fire due to the riots has threatened the priceless artifacts kept in Cairo’s Egyptian Museum.  Even if the risk of looting has been minimized by Egyptian army commandoes, on 28th January, 2011, the ruling party headquarters building next door to the museum was in flames. The protesters torched it during the mass anti-government protests which swept across the capital. Eventually, the building did not collapse, but if destroyed, it would have fallen over the museum.

Previously, some Egyptians armed with truncheons, created a human chain at the museum’s front gate to prevent looters from making off with any of its artifacts.Some looters have had the possibility to vandalize two mummies, ripping their heads off , taking some small artifacts out of their glass cases and clearing out the museum gift shop.

In the same days, rumors that attacks were planned against monuments prompted authorities to erect barriers and guard Karnak Temple while tanks were positioned around Luxor’s museum.

Termites, Worms, Xylophagous and Fire Protections in Museums

Marble statues (in picture the Uffizi's Laocoonte group) are among the few artifacts not subject to worms attacks in museums
Marble statues (in picture the Uffizi's Laocoonte group) are among the few artifacts not subject to worms attacks in museums

In some cases, fire protection systems can be useful also to improve the environment of museums and galleries, like the active fire protection measures that replaces the air within a protected space with inert air that has reduced oxygen concentration. The different concentrations of the components of air are slightly altered (typically, five percent of the oxygen content can be substituted by nitrogen) and are  safe to breathe for most people but prevent fire ignition in many materials.

Even if in the specific case of the Florence gallery low oxygen concentration systems weren’t used, the typical problems of improving the environment are  similar to the ones faced by the Florence Galleria degli Uffizi, that has decontaminated by termites more than 400 masterpieces. The war on insects in one of the most famous museums in the world is in full swing. Xylophagous, a presence in typical environments with wooden structures such as museums or collections, will be eradicated by a new conservation work carried out by management and the staff of the Gallery. Will be cleared also the doors of the Gallery Room of the precious miniatures.

Uffizi Gallery is currently organizing the chemical treatment of all the doors of the Gallery and restoration of wooden decorations of the Hall of Miniatures. But the works of greatest importance and size are the altarpiece The Coronation of the Virgin by Lorenzo Monaco, Coronation of the Virgin by Botticelli and the triptych with the Adoration of the Shepherds by Hugo van der Goes. Such interventions are urgent and delicate and have to be carried out without moving the artifacts and without hindrance to the public, since two of these paintings are housed in a room which is relevant to Botticelli.’

Of particular importance was the work on the altarpiece by Lorenzo Monaco was considered improcrastinabile for the state of conservation work and run into the front of the painting, which is almost five meters high, a sheet of special material, combined with the upright skylight to form a closed bag. Inside the bag was put to the nitrogen saturation of the environment, thus enabling the elimination of larvae and eggs in the wood.

The operation was conducted with constant monitoring of the parameters of moisture, temperature, pressure, concentration of nitrogen pressure, residual oxygen and ended with a treaty of protection from future attacks. The tests performed on the altarpiece in 2009 has identified a specific method and an apparatus adapted to the pest control technology of large-scale works and in 2010.

Arson in Sagrada Familia Cathedral in Barcelona (Spain)

bA disturbed man has started a fire on April 19th 2011 in Barcelona’s Cathedral Sagrada Familia, Antoni Gaudì’s masterpiece. The man of around 55 has been found with several lighters in his pocket.

Around 1000 people were evacuated from the cathedral, which is one of the most popular tourist sites in Spain’s second-largest city.  The blaze was extinguished and four people were treated for smoke inhalation. The fire seems to have caused a significant damage to the sacristy where it was ignited and it burned for about 45 minutes.

The fire occurred in the church’s crypt, where prests prepare for Mass, open for religious purposes and it caused some damage to the crypt. The church has been temporarily closed to the public.

Some tourists saw smoke coming from inside the sacristy and alerted authorities.

Montmartre Theatre Fire in Paris (France)

6A major fire on March 21st, 2011,  broke inside the Elysee Montmartre Theatre. Paris fire department received the first calls for help came at about 7:45 am from buildings adjacent to the theater. The interior was extensively damaged due to the fact that the theater held many fabrics and wooden pieces and was full of flammable materials. Apparently, the roof burned and its collapse caused an increase of air, and a bigger fire. The entire stage burned down and the fire spewed plumes of smoke over the Montmartre neighborhood.

The fire was under control by approximately 11:30. It is believed that the conflagration was caused by a short-circuit. 26 fire engines and 16 rescue centers have been mobilized.

The fire has destroyed a two-century-old theater, birthplace of French cabaret-style cancan dancing. The internal structural supports were designed by Gustave Eiffel, famed for the Eiffel Tower.

Fire in the Abbey of Saint-Remy Rochefort (Belgium)

2On december 29th. 2010, some seventy firefighters from the Fire station of Rochefort, Beauraing, Power and Dinant have been working for almost an hour onthe site of the abbey of Saint-Remy Rochefort, where a major fire broke in the evening, around at 6,30 p.m.. The Abbey is famous for the production of beer.

A problem of electric generators is the basis of the blaze which resulted in the burning of the building. A reserve containing furniture was first affected, then a cabin room containing highvoltage and electrical box but, though the blaze has destroyed much of the building’s timber structure, no injuries were reported.

The area of the abbey hosting the tanks of the brewery have not been affected, as well as the library. Because of snowfall, electrical problems affecting the brewery, generators were placed in a shed to reduce incidents. The monks were taking their evening meal when the fire erupted. Ciney Road, which passes close to the abbey was closed to traffic so as not to hamper rescue work. About 35 people work daily inthe Abbey of SaintRemy which is brewed Trappist Rochefort.

The Abbey was built in 1230, destroyed in 1797 and built again in 1887.

Fire in church during renovation works in Lucca (Italy)

A fire occurred in one of the major monuments in Lucca, the Guinigi chapel within the complex of San Francesco. The building dates from the second half of the 300 and it was subject to restoration and modernization works. The smoke has completely blackened medieval frescoes and decorations.
According to a reconstruction, the first flames have started when the workers engaged in the construction of a ventilation system, had just started to weld two sleeves of polyurethane tubing that is approximately 80 cm in diameter by an electric welder. Probably, on this occasion there was a short circuit. The same workers have tried to stop the fire by closing the vents of the ventilation system, then tried to extinguish the fire with extinguishers but the flames were too high and the air no more breathable.
In a short time, fire and smoke have saturated the whole chapel blacking out the plaster beneath which lie the fourteenth-century decor. Two teams of firefighters have prevented the flames from reaching the other rooms of the museum complex

guinigi lucca 1On December 27th, 2010 a fire occurred in one of the major monuments in Lucca, the Guinigi chapel within the complex of San Francesco. The building dates from the second half of the 300 and it was subject to restoration and modernization works. The smoke has completely blackened medieval frescoes and decorations.

According to a reconstruction, the first flames have started when the workers engaged in the construction of a ventilation system, had just started to weld two sleeves of polyurethane tubing that is approximately 80 cm in diameter by an electric welder. Probably, on this occasion there was a short circuit. The same workers have tried to stop the fire by closing the vents of the ventilation system, then tried to extinguish the fire with extinguishers but the flames were too high and the air no more breathable.

In a short time, fire and smoke have saturated the whole chapel blacking out the plaster beneath which lie the fourteenth-century decor. Two teams of firefighters have prevented the flames from reaching the other rooms of the museum complex.

According to first assessments, damages reach 100.000 euros.

Fire Research Database – FReD – English Heritage

EnglishHeritage This database was set up by the public body English Heritage to enable all those responsible in any capacity for historic buildings to share information on related fire safety matters.

The database has now been expanded to allow PDFs of research reports to be attached, as well as giving contact points for current or planned projects and details of published reports.

this is the link to FReD Web page:

http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/professional/research/buildings/fire-research-database

Audioguide System for Rescue Operations in Museums

DSC_6990An innovative system developed under EU funds to help rescuers during emergencies in museums has been presented on September 15th, 2010, in Turin (Italy) in the Villa della Regina building, which is one of the royal buildings in Turin. Such system is based on the use during emergencies of the same devices used to guide people during their visits to museums and other cultural or historical buildings.

The European project MAP (mobile adaptive procedures), developed under successive EU funding, is aimed at the creation of a system that, among other functions, improves the operation of Fire Brigades in particular contexts, such as events relating to the safety of historical heritage. This topic was the subject of the conference held September 15 in Turin.

The conference was organized by the european-funded MAP project (coordinated by the Italian Ministry of Interior), Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco (National Fire Brigade) and the Italian Ministry for Cultural Heritage.

The central topic of the conference was the pilot project for a system intended to improve the management of emergencies by the Fire Brigade. This system, which allows the Fire Department to be informed and guided in real time during emergencies, is the first of this kind, and is based on a series of fact sheets, developed by the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage, which have been stored on the server of the local Command of the Fire Brigade in Turin. The contents of these cards are used by the Fire Department rescue personnel during the emergency and allows operators to know the priorities of the actions they are supposed to develop. They are informed using a code very similar to the “triage” conducted in an emergency department of a hospital . For the artifacts to be saved were defined key parameters such as response times for removal, weight and transportation techniques, as well as a classification of the level of historical or artistic interest.

Data transmitted through the MAP system allow the Fire Department to improve  rescue operations. In addition, thanks to devices scattered throughout the museum (the same devices used for audioguides during normal museum operations) and an innovative algorithm, data can be monitored constantly by the fire brigade control room.


Historic Hereford pub destroyed by fire

Pub

A 15th Century pub has been gutted in a fire    which spread through a historic part of        Hereford city centre.

More than 100 firefighters were called to the High  Town area, where Booth Hall was engulfed in  flames.

Police said an electrical fault was believed to have  caused the fire, which broke out at about 0425 BST.

Three four-storey buildings containing River Island, Card Factory, Ann Summers and a mobile phone shop were also badly damaged, the fire service said.

The Booth Hall site, which dates back to 1392 and became a pub in the 15th Century, is a separate building.

Twenty fire engines were called to the scene and the area affected measured about 100m by 80m, the fire service said.

The head of policy and education at the chamber of commerce, said the fire was going to have “a major impact” on trading.

He said: “People will avoid the town centre today and this will affect the surrounding businesses who have managed to open.

“The impact in the medium term is unknown at the moment as it will depend on the severity of the fire and how long businesses are required to close.”

The council pledged support to local businesses affected by the fire by helping them to find alternative suitable premises.

The economic development team was scouring the city to identify potential properties for temporary or permanent occupation.

From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-hereford-worcester-11593504#story_continues_1

Historic Buildings Fire Risk Assessment Tools

Assessing fire risk in historic or heritage buildings is a defying task for every fire safety professional, as well as for every architect concerned with the problems of updating such buildings to new uses. Normally, fire risk assessment is carried out on the basis of check of compliance to the relevant fire safety standards. New office buildings, shops, schools, museums and many other occupancies are covered by codes in the most of countries. Thus, assessing the risk is a rather easy job.
In other cases, when standards are not available, guidelines or general criteria give the necessary hints to develop a good level fire risk assessment. But, when the building to be assessed has an historical value, the problems which arise do not always find a satisfying answer in the general principles or codes of fire protection. How to deal an important museums which is supposed to be extremely crowded if stairs to not meet fire standards? Which alarm system fits complex structure wooden roof? How to fight fire when water cannot be easily provided?
In order to give adequate answers to questions like

1Assessing fire risk in historic or heritage buildings is a defying task for every fire safety professional, as well as for every architect concerned with the problems of updating such buildings to new uses. In general, fire risk assessment in the case of a normal building is carried out on checking the compliance of the building to the relevant fire safety standards. New office buildings, shops, schools, museums and many other occupancies are covered by codes in the most of countries. Thus, assessing the risk is a rather easy job.

In other cases, when standards are not available, guidelines or general criteria give the necessary hints to develop a good level fire risk assessment. But, when the building to be assessed has an historical value, the problems which arise do not always find a satisfying answer in the general principles or codes of fire protection.

How to deal an important museums which is supposed to be extremely crowded if stairs to not meet fire standards? Which alarm system fits complex structure wooden roof? How to fight fire when water cannot be easily provided?

In order to give adequate answers to such questions, there are few tools which actually allow to assess fire risk and develop a correct protection strategy. One of the most interesting documents concerning the problem is the NPFA 914 Standard (Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures), which addresses fundamental arguments as:

  • security
  • prescriptive and performance-based options
  • management
  • addition, alteration and rehabilitation works, and fire precautions during construction, repair and alteration works
  • special events
  • inspection, testing and maintenance
  • survey forms for conducting arson vulnerability assessments
  • guidance on the implementation of operational controls
  • Provisions for the use of arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) to protect electrical circuits
  • wildfire protection criteria
  • criteria for determining contractor qualifications
  • inspection, testing, and maintenance requirements for premises security systems
  • criteria for special event protection and security

Another tool available, quoted also in the NFPA 914 code but not dealt as a single topic by specific standards, is the performance-based approach, which is developed through the fire safety engineering instruments. Such approach implies that the objectives of the risk analysis are shared among the stakeholders and, consequently, that fire safety scenarios are selected using the expert judgement and verified through simulations of fire. The most significant part of such analysis is the scenario selection, since the results will show the adequacy or non adequacy of fire safety strategy respect to the selected fires.

At the moment, the main obstacle to be removed in using  fire safety engineering to cultural and historical building fire safety is a relative lack of data about fire behavior of historical material. Few data are available about fire damages or extinguishing agents damages to i.e. old canvas or papers (actually, historic or archaic materials cover a very wide range, from metal to almost every organic material object). An  extensive research in such field needs to be developed. An important step towards such goal has been recently undertook by the Fire Research Foundation in order to collect such kind of data.

Fire destroys 600-years old Temple in Wudang Mountains (China)

1On January 19, 2003, the 600-year-old Yuzhengong Palace at the Wudang Mountains was accidentally burned down by an employee of a martial arts school. A fire broke out in the hall, reducing the three rooms that covered 200 square metres to ashes. A gold-plated statue of Zhang Sanfeng, which was usually housed in Yuzhengong, was moved to another building just before the fire, and so escaped destruction in the inferno.

Inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994, the Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains represents the highest standards of Chinese art and architecture over a period of nearly 1,000 years. The palaces and temples which form the nucleus of this group of secular and religious buildings exemplify the architectural and artistic achievements of China’s Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. Situated in the scenic valleys and on the slopes of the Wudang mountains in Hubei Province, the site contains Taoist buildings from as early as the 7th century.

Castle destroyed by fire in Ebelsbach (Germany)

1On October 10, 2009, the 16th-century Schloss Ebelsbach, the main landmark in the small Barvarian village of Ebelsbach, (built between 1564 and 1569 by Baron Matthew von Rotenhan) has been destroyed by a fire occurred during the night .

Flames were first spotted coming from the building at 4:30 am. By the time police arrived at the scene, the roof was already totally engulfed

Statue of Liberty Evacuation due to smoke sensor activation (New York, USA)

1On July 21st, 2010, tourists visiting New York’s Statue of Liberty  have been evacuated, due to the activation of a smoke sensor in the elevator shaft. An investigation later determined that there was never any smoke, despite what the sensor indicated.

It is unclear how many people were visiting during the time of the incident but, presumably, several hundred would have been within the monument.

No injuries have been reported during the evacuation.

The Statue of Liberty was closed to the public because of safety concerns after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. After 2004 it has been reopened but the crown remained closed because the narrow, double-helix staircases were deemed unsafe for evacuations, and didn’t comply with fire and building codes. Officials have since installed new handrails to assist with the climb.

Titian Painting damaged during Fire: Pictures of Removal Operations

1Few days after the fire has damaged the Titian’s painting “David and Goliath” (fire started on september 1st near the church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice), firefighters and art conservation experts have removed the large painting (originally kept in the sacristy of the Venice) from its location to allow restoration activities. The painting has been damaged during the fire started from the roof of the nearby building and has been involved in firefighting operation from water used to extinguish the roof fire.

The pictures, which are part of the snapshots published in the official italian firefighters website, show the complexity of the operations needed to remove the canvas (located 10 m above ground) and the big number of people involved in the operations. Before the operations, firefighters have secured the structures and dried the rooms.

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Philips Collection Fire – Washington DC (USA)

aOn September 2, 2010, a fire started on the roof of the Phillips Collection in Washington, D.C., and it has been extinguished, with no injuries reported and no  serious damage to artworks. The artworks  could have incurred significant damage in the fire, which was “renovation-related.”

The blaze, which had erupted at about 8:30 a.m., was put out by a combination of the museum’s sprinkler system and responding firemen, but with limited water damage on all floors.

The fire was restricted to the collection’s building that served as the institution’s original home. After the fire has been extinguished, museum staff has moved  artworks from the mansion into the adjacent Goh Annex.

The collection has been evacuated and closed after the fire spread smoke through the building. Fire alarms went off at the building around 8:30 a.m. .

The cause is still under investigation, but the building is under renovation and investigators believe welding work may be the culprit.

Automatic sprinklers were set off on all four floors of the museum, containing the fire which was then extinguished by firefighters.

The building sustained moderate water damage on all four floors, with the top two sustaining moderate smoke damage.

About 50 firefighters were at the gallery.

The museum currently holds some 3,000 artworks, primarily American and European.

Titian painting damaged during Fire in Venice Church (Italy)

bOn august 29th 2010, at 10 p.m., a fire has started at the roof level of the building near the Venice Salute Church. The fire, which could be an arson (witnesses have heard two explosions and the fire started in two different points), spread immediately to the roof of the church. Firefighters have used large amounts of water to limit the spread of the blaze, in order to avoid the collapse of the roofs of the rooms of the church.

In few hours the fire has been extinguished.

The morning after the fire, the Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) painting “Davide and Goliath” has been removed from its location (in a room directly connected to the church main hall) in order to limit damages due to water used by firefigthers.

The roof of the Santa Maria della Salute Church, threatened by the fire, is considered one of the most remarkable in Venice.

In the recent years firefigthers have started using to extinguish fires water from the new city fire hydrant system. Such water is much less aggressive than the lagoon water, used until few years ago and it has limited damages to the painting.

Fire Safety Retrofitting in Historical Buildings

1aImproving fire safety level of historical buildings is one of the most common problems to deal with after a fire risk assessment. The theme is not easy, since fire safety technical issues are relevant as conservation ones.  In August 1989, the US Government Agency General Service Administration published the paper “Fire Safety Retrofitting in Historical Buildings” in cooperation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.

The document provides guidance to ensure that fire safety retrofitting has minimal impact on the historic features of the property.

Fire_Safety_Retrofitting_in_Historic_Buildings

Fire at Restoration Center in Moscow (Russia)

1On July 21, 2010, a blaze has killed two firefighters in a Moscow restoration center. Several paintings and icons stored on the third floor of the Igor Grabar Restoration Center were lost in a fire too. Such paintings, icons and other artifacts from the 17th to the 19th centuries were stored at the Grabar pending restoration. The blaze, which lasted for two hours, covered an area of 2,000 m2.

Paintings and icons survived the fire are feared to be irretrievably lost due to water damage. Art works not affected by the fire could suffer damage from the large amount of water used by firemen to control the fire, since water can inevitably lead to the appearance of mould on paintings and icons. An accurate assessment of the damage to the artworks at the centre from the fire could only be determined after a full inventory of the remaining assets. The fire could run into hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, of roubles. A single icon is considered 12 mln euros worth.

Twenty fire companies responded to the scene on Thursday and four helicopters dumped water on hot spots in the building 104 times.

The cause of the fire is  unknown but there’s the suspect the fire started where restoration specialists were working at the facility or welding crew were working in the interior of the center.


Sprinkler Corrosion and Fire Safety Issues in Historic Buildings

1Ageing firefighting installations can cause severe reliability problems in historic buildings.

We publish the link to an interesting article  (Corrosion Process Inside Steel Fire Sprinkler Piping, by Bruce W. Christ, Ph.D) published on the Fire Protection Engineering website, based on a review of the engineering and scientific literature pertaining to biological and nonbiological metal corrosion processes.

The review indicates that several metal corrosion processes can occur inside pressurized, water-based, metal fire sprinkler piping. The scientific literature of electrochemistry is rich with examples of corrosion processes other than MIC that can deteriorate metals. For example, “oxygen corrosion” is a nonbiological process that can corrode certain metals. Moreover, “acid-oxygen corrosion” is a nonbiological process that can corrode certain metals even faster than oxygen corrosion.

The article discusses also nonbiological corrosion processes that are spontaneous under the conditions of temperature and pressure that prevail in pressurized, water-based, metal fire sprinkler piping systems:

http://www.fpemag.com/archives/article.asp?issue_id=27&i=176

Do Risk Index Methods Fit to Historical Buildings?

Rome's Anfiteatro di Marcello means of egress
Rome's Anfiteatro di Marcello means of egress

Assessing fire risks in historical buildings may be a complex task. Normally, means of egress, structural fire resistance, decorations and other fire related aspects of historical building present  important differences from what prescriptive rules ask. So, sometimes the only option to evaluate a fire safety project remains the use of the performance based approach. Such approach, on the other hand, cannot be used in a relaxed way, since there’s still a huge need of data about fire behavior of archaic materials and fire causes. Moreover, performance based approach implies the need of  performing fire simulations in complex environments. As a consequence, normally the fire engineering assessment will hardly be performed in the needed comprehensive manner.

A possible shortcut to avoid wasting time assessments (as performance based can frequently be), which can be always subject to criticism due the complexity of the problem, has been hypothesized in using methods based on risk indexes. Such methods are not new and are based on the attribution of values to parameters used to help  in the assessment. A severe lack of transparency in such methods can be found in the difficulty found in identifying objective paths to attribute values to parameters.

Given such a situation, do Fire Risk Index Methods fit to the actual needs of cultural heritage safety?

We welcome any comment about this argument.